Mechanical properties

Mechanical properties consist of tensile strength, toughness, malleability, hardness, Ductility, stiffness, brittle ness, Elasticity, plasticity etc.

Tensile strength

Tensile strength is the ability of the material to withstand the tensile loads without breaking.


Strength is the ability of a material to attack the applied forces without fracturing.


Toughness is the ability of the material to withstand bending, or it is an application of shear stresses without fracture. The rubber or many plastic materials do not scatter so they are tough.


It is the capacity of the substance to tolerate deformation under compression without separation or the malleable materials, to allow a useful amount of plastic deformation. This is it undergoes compressive loading before fracture occurs. Such a material is required for manipulation by the process and rolling, forging and rivet heading.


Hardness is the ability of the material to withstand scratching or depression by another hard body; it is an indication of the wear resistance of the material.


Ductility is the capacity of the substances to undergo deformation, under tension without rupture as in wire drawing.


Stiffness is used to measure the ability of the material, and not to deflect under an applied load.


Brittleness is the property of a material that demonstrates little or no plastic deformation before break when a force is applied. Also it is typically said in the opposite manner to ductility and malleability.


Elasticity is the ability of a material to deform under load and return to its original shape and size when the load is removed. If it is made from elastic material it will be the same length before and after the load is applied. All materials possess elasticity to some degree and each one of it has its own elastic limits.


Plasticity is the property which is strictly opposite to elasticity; the ductility and malleability are actual cases of plasticity. Plasticity is the state of a material which has been fully loaded beyond its elastic limit so as to cause the material to deform permanently. Under such conditions the material takes a permanent set and will not return to its original size and shape when the load is removed.

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