Industrial Engineering & Production Management


The production management deals with the design of the production system (which includes product, process, plant, equipment etc.) and development of the control system to manage inventories, product quality, production schedules and productivity.

Industrial Engineering – Introduction

The industrial engineering is an engineering approach to the detailed analysis of the use and cost of the resources of an organization. The main resources are men, money, materials, equipment and machinery. An industrial engineer carries out such analysis in order to achieve the objectives (to increase productivity or profits etc.) and policies of the organization.

Work Study

The work study consists of two techniques namely method study and work measurement. The pioneer work in this field was done by F. W. Taylor and Frank B. Gilbreth.

The.method study is a technique to simplify the job and develop more economical methods of doing it.

The work measurement is concerned with the elimination of ineffective time (the time during which no productive work is being performed) and establishment of time standards for a job.

The objectives of method study are as follows:

1. To improve the total performance of the operating unit.

2. To maintain performance at the highest level during any given time and continuously to improve on that level.

The method study can be applied to almost all types of work, whether it be a factory, clerical or any other type of activity. The following is the basic procedure in the application of method study:

(a) Select the job or process to be studied.

(b) Record all facts about the present method by direct observation.

(c) Examine these facts critically.

(d) Develop the most practical, economic and effective method.

(e) Install the new developed method as a standard practice.

(f) Maintain the standard practice by regular routine checks.

The success of method study depends on the accuracy with which the facts are recorded.

Symbols Used in Work Study

The work study is done by means of a stop watch. In work study, all the activities are broken down into five basic types of events and each is represented by a symbol, as follows:

(a) Operation:  It involves a change in the location or condition of a product.

(b) Inspection:  It is an act of checking for correctness of the quantity or quality of the items.

(c) Transport:  It indicates the movement of an item from one location to another.

(d) Delay:  It occurs when something stops the process and a product waits for the next event.

(e) Storage:  It represents a stage when a finished good or raw material awaits an action or when an item has been retained for quite some time for reference purposes.

String Diagram

The string diagram is used in production management systems for:

(a) for checking the relative values of various layouts,

(b) where group of workers are working at a place, and

(c) where processes require the operator to be moved from one work place to other.

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