·         The study of objects and phenomena at a very small scale, roughly 1-100 nanometres (nm)is called as Nanoscale science or Nanoscience.

Ø  To understand how small one nm is let us see few comparisons

1. A Red blood cell is approximately 7000nm wide.

2. Water Molecule is almost 0.3nm across.

3. Human hair which is ~ 80,000nm wide.

·         Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, characterization, production and application of structures devices and systems by controlling shape and size at a Nano meter Scale.

·         In Nano science building blocks may consist of anywhere from a few hundred atoms to millions of atoms.

·         Nanometre scale: The length scale ranging from 1–100 nm where corresponding material properties are size & shape dependent.

·         The properties of Nano Materials are very much different from those at a larger scale. Two principal factors cause the properties of Nano Materials to differ significantly from other materials. 1. Increased relative surface area.

1. Increased relative surface area.

2. Quantum confinement effect: electrons can only exist at discrete energy levels. Quantum dots are nanomaterials that display the effect of quantization of energy.

These factors can charge or enhance properties such as reactivity, strength and electrical characteristics.

Characteristics of Nanoscale materials:

·         Fiber that is stronger than spider web

·         Metal 100 times stronger than steel and 1/6 of its weight

·         Catalysts that respond more quickly and to more agents

·         Plastics that conduct electricity.

·         Coatings that are nearly frictionless –(Shipping Industry) 

·         Materials that change colour and transparency on demand.

·         Materials that are self-repairing, self-cleaning, and never need repainting.

·         Nanoscale powders that are five times as light as plastic but provide the same radiation protection as metal.

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