Question Set 69

1.What is a process flow diagram?

A Process Flow Diagram is a user friendly, simplified sketch which illustrates general plant streams, major equipments and key central loops and shows the relationship between major components in the system. By using symbols to identify instruments and vessels it describes the primary flow course. They also provide e detail of mass/energy balance data along with stream composition and physical properties, however do not show minor components.

2.What is a time and motion theory?

Frederick Taylor was pioneer of the time and motion theory. This technique monitors the amount of time required to complete a task along with observing the steps taken by a worker to complete the given task.

3.Which is the hardest material on earth?

Diamond is currently the hardest material, made up of carbon atoms which cannot move. Carbon is the only atom that can have four electrons in the second shell surrounding the carbon nucleus, precisely why making a diamond the hardest material. However, there also are claims by a few to a new rare material called Wurtzite Boron Nitride which has a structure similar to a diamond but has some other atoms in place of carbon.

4.One unit of BTU is how many Joules?

1 BTU=1055.06 Joules

5.What does a pump develop? Give reason to support your answer.

Pump is a device that is used to transfer fluid from one place to another place which means it develops flow not pressure.

6.Explain the difference between pipe and a tube.

A pipe is measured based on its inner diameter (ID) whereas a tube is measured based on the outer diameter (OD). Other than the dimensions there is no major difference between the two.

7.Explain the formula of heat loss in a pipe.

In order to find total heat loss through the pipes it is imperative to know the thermal conductivity and the differing thicknesses of each layer. The ground that surrounds the pipe also acts as a layer of insulation. Considering this, the thermal properties of the stoneless sand is included in the heat loss calculation.

8.What kind of pipes are used for steam lines?

Pressure and temperature are two of the most important factors to be considered before selecting the type of material to be used. Steam is a compressible gas due to which the capacity of the pipe line depends on the size of the pipes and pressure of the steam. Since steam at even low pressure can be dangerous, extra care is to be taken. Galvanized pipes are usually not used for steam. Pipes made of mild steel with welded fittings are instead largely used.

9.Who invented the four stroke engine? According to you which one is more efficient, four stroke engine or a two stroke engine and why?

Nikolaus Otto invented the four stroke engine. Both, two stroke and four stroke have their own advantages and disadvantages. 4 stroke is more fuel efficient. However, 2 stroke produces more power.

10.What do you understand by the concept of a 6 stroke engine? Explain how it works.

The six stroke engine is based on the concept of four stroke engine but built with an intention of improvising the efficiency in reducing emission. Every cycle of a four stroke engine involves the upward and downward movement of the piston which happens twice in the chamber, resulting in four total strokes and one of which is the power stroke which provides the torque to move the vehicle. A six stroke engine works similarly except that there are two power strokes.

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